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Enterprise Architect User Group: London 2017
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RepoDoc, a call for testing
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Managing a student project with Enterprise Architect - Part 4
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Use C#, Java, for your VB Scripting
Written by Helmut Ortmann
We recently published Panorama 360 Insurance and Wealth Management Enterprise Business Architecture Framework as a book (456 pages) which is globally available on Amazon. It covers all functional (Capabilities) and informational aspects of the industry. This enterprise business model is also available on Sparx Enterprise Architect.
Here is a link to an article that was published by Insurance Innovation Reporter's Anthony R. O'Donnell relative to the value of Panorama 360.
by Phil Chudley, Principal Consultant at Dunstan Thomas Consulting
The Open Group released the official specification of ArchiMate 3.0 in June 2016, and this new specification is supported in Enterprise Architect version 13. This article summarises the new features and changes within ArchiMate 3.0 and provides an example of how to migrate an existing ArchiMate 2.0 model to ArchiMate 3.0 model using Enterprise Architect v.13.
Summary of Changes
The following is a summary of the changes made within ArchiMate 3.0:
- Motivation Extension;
- New element for modelling Outcomes.
- New set of Strategy Elements, Resource, Capability, Course of Action.
- Business Layer;
- Representation of the Contract element modified so as to be different from the Business Object Element.
- Location element removed (although Enterprise Architect has re-located this element to the Technology Layer – Physical Extension).
- Application Layer;
- Two new elements added, Application Process and Application Event
- Technology layer;
- Elements called Infrastructure in ArchiMate 2.0 are now called Technology in ArchiMate 3.0.
- Four new elements added, Technology Process, Technology Interaction, Technology Event and Technology Collaboration.
- New set of Physical Elements, Equipment, Facility, Distribution Network and Material. These elements are known as the Physical Extension.
- Implementation and Migration Extension;
- One new element added, Implementation Event.
- Representation of Assignment modified to have a directional arrow.
- Bi-directional Access relationship added.
- Plus (positive) and Minus (negative) symbols added to Influence Relationship.
- New relationship, Serving.
Detail of Changes
The following tables provided an example of the changes for each of the sections listed in the Summary of Changes above.
|Outcome||An end result that has been achieved.|
|Resource||An asset owned or controlled by an individual or organisation.|
|Capability||An ability that an active structure element, such as an organisation, person, or system possesses.|
|Course of Action||An approach or plan for configuring some capabilities and resources of the enterprise, undertaken to achieve a goal.|
|Contract||A formal or informal specification of an agreement between a provided and consumer that specifies the rights and obligations associated with a product.|
|Application Process||A sequence of application behaviours that achieves a specific outcome.|
|Application Event||An application behaviour element that denotes a state change.|
|Technology Collaboration||An aggregate of two or more nodes that work together to perform collective technology behaviour.|
|Technology Process||A sequence of technology behaviours that achieves a specific outcome.|
|Technology Event||A technology behaviour element that denotes a state of change.|
|Technology Interaction||A unit of collective technology behaviour performed by (a collaboration of) two or more nodes.|
|Equipment||One or more physical machines, tools, or instruments that can create, use, store, move, or transform materials.|
|Facility||A physical structure or environment.|
|Distribution Network||A physical network used to transport materials or energy.|
|Material||Tangible physical matter or physical elements.|
Implementation & Migration Extension
|Implementation Event||A behaviour element that denotes a change of state related to an implementation or migration.|
|Assignment||Expresses the allocation of responsibility, performance of behaviour, or execution.|
|Serving||Models that an element provides its functionality to another element.|
|Access||Models the ability of behaviour and active structure elements to observe or act upon passive structure elements.|
|Influence||Models that an element affects the implementation or achievement of some motivation element.|
Implications to existing ArchiMate models
If an organisation has modelled their Enterprise Architecture using Enterprise Architect and ArchiMate 2, and are now using Version 13 of Enterprise Architect, they have two courses of action:
- Continue to model using ArchiMate 2.0. In this case no action is required either for Enterprise Architect or the model repository. An organisation would continue to model using ArchiMate 2.0 if they do not wish to make use of any of the new features in ArchiMate 3.0.
- Migrate their existing ArchiMate 2.0 model to ArchiMate 3.0, and then continue to model using ArchiMate 3.0. An organisation would continue to model using ArchiMate 2.0 if they wish to make use of any of the new features in ArchiMate 3.0.
My own personal opinion is that an organisation should consider moving to Enterprise Architect version 13 (mainly due its new feature of “Time Aware Modelling”) and ArchiMate 3.0. One of the main reasons, is due to inherent ambiguity (due to the lack of direction indication) in the assigns relationship in ArchiMate 2.0, which has been eliminated in ArchiMate 3.0 by making the assigns relationship directional.
Migrating an ArchiMate 2.0 model to ArchiMate 3.0
Enterprise Architect version 13 provides a migration script for this purpose. The following steps are used to perform the migration:
- Take a backup copy of the existing model repository.
- Using the Configure | Manage Technology ribbon, ensure that both ArchiMate 2.0 and ArchiMate 3.0 MDG technologies are enabled.
- Using the Code | Scripting ribbon, make the scripting window visible:
- Select the topmost package (or view) that contains the model to migrate:
- Select the script Migrate ArchiMate 2 to ArchiMate 3 in the scripting window.
- Right-click and select Run Script from the menu.
- The progress of the migration, together with any errors / warnings will be displayed in the system output window.
- Review the diagrams (you may have to tidy some of the relationships).
- Turn off the MDG ArchiMate 2.0 using the Configure | Manage Technology ribbon.
NOTE: It appears that composition relationships are NOT HIDDEN, when using nested structures in ArchiMate 3.0. I suspect this is an Enterprise Architect version 13 issue. This is likely to be fixed and should not deter migration, as these relationships can always be hidden using the Visible Relations function in Enterprise Architect. (Layout | Manage ribbon and select Show and Hide Relationships… from the menu).
Dunstan Thomas Consulting
You'll find lots of useful Enterprise Architect videos on our YouTube Channel.
In a candid interview with Arun Kant from CIOReview, Sparx Systems' CEO Geoffrey Sparks highlights how Enterprise Architecture has become an imperative for survival in the ever-changing and globalized corporate landscape.
CIOReview has also included Sparx Systems in their '20 Most Promising Enterprise Architecture Technology Providers 2016' list, resulting from a robust selection process actioned by a highly qualified panel of domain experts. The in-depth interview with Geoffrey Sparks is the featured article in this month's edition of CIOReview, where Geoffrey discusses the Sparx Systems tradition of continual development of the Enterprise Architect platform, while maintaining the highly competitive price-point that enables affordable outfitting for all project stakeholders.
Geoffrey Sparx, Founder and CEO, Sparx Systems
To read the full featured article, simply download the PDF attachment at the top of this article.
Many organizations already have or are in the process of building catalogs and inventories of key assets either in office productivity tools like Microsoft Visio® or Excel® or collaboration tools like Microsoft SharePoint®. Managing this contents in such informal tools is very difficult to exploit and maintain. Organizations need a comprehensive, integrated platform for making investment decisions based on a holistic view of the enterprise.
Watch this new video to understand how to build an Enterprise Business Intelligence Platform using APG ModelFlow and Sparx Enterprise Architect. Go from spreadsheet to full-fledged modeling in minutes!
At Sparx Systems there are a number of key objectives that are always in the minds of the developers. One is delivering what the end user wants and the other is to exceed end user expectations, by delivering to their needs at an affordable price point. A third objective is to add value by making the end user experience more practical, inclusive and convenient.
These are the reasons why Enterprise Architect is the total modelling and design environment, -adaptable and extensible, providing all that is required by the end user and reducing or eliminating the inconvenience of access to the “external application”. That’s a simple expectation of a modelling tool, and the Sparx Systems interpretation of this expectation puts Enterprise Architect Version 13 in a class of its own.
Kanban was first introduced into Enterprise Architect Version 11. As a key agile process, Kanban is a method for managing knowledge work, with an emphasis on just-in-time delivery. It presents all participants with a full view of the process, from task definition, to delivery to a customer. Because Kanban is a set of practices that can also be implemented in traditional hierarchical bureaucracy, it does not present a threat to the existing culture and can work within different cultures.
In 2015 a Forrester survey found that the customer experience topped priorities for business and technology leaders. Based on these results Forrester forecasts that in 2016, customer experience “will be among the top 10 critical success factors determining who will win and who will fail in the age of the customer.” This is interesting because agile processes embrace change, which translates as the customer’s competitive advantage. Or put another way, the price of survival is to become agile. In recent times Kanban has been applied to the process of developing software-centric solutions in an attempt to ensure that value is delivered to the customer as quickly as possible.
Kanban is an agile entry point that while it does not challenge the culture it can be used to challenge the status quo. However, as an agile practice Kanban can be a cultural “change agent” and lead to Scrum and XP agile practices. Enterprise Architect offers a complete Agile Project Management foundation for the largest to the smallest of projects, supporting mainstream agile delivery frameworks and methods including, SCRUM, RUP, XP, DSDM and Kanban.
Kanban revolves around a visual board for managing work-in-progress and making work flow issues apparent through process definition based on how the work is handled in the team and on stakeholder priorities. A backlog is created in order to keep track of the work and as a basis for setting priorities. The cycle time of the tickets can be measured and used to keep track on improvements.
Enterprise Architect has built-in Kanban diagrams and a number of pre-built workflow patterns that can be used 'as-is' or configured to suit any project or initiative. Because Enterprise Architect is also a sophisticated modeling platform for strategic and business analysis, architecture, design, implementation, testing and deployment, this Kanban facility becomes very powerful. Work items on a Kanban Board can be linked to strategic decisions, business rules, policies, requirements, architecture and design elements and every facility in the development lifecycle.
Agile planning is the assessment of the rate that agile teams can convert customer requirements into deployment ready software, while determining when they will be done. Burn down charts will provide these indicators. With Enterprise Architect burn down charts and time series graphs can be easily created and these are regularly and automatically updated by Enterprise Architect. A sophisticated charting facility is available to create powerful and expressive charts and dashboards, that will provide insights into the Kanban process and enable Product Owners and other team members to monitor performance and determine ways of fine tuning how the team works. There are a range of built-in charts, including bar, pie charts and heat maps, but a team is free to create any number of user-defined charts, which can also be incorporated into team processes and reviews.
As the affordable solution of choice for organisations who want to adopt Agile, including Kanban, Enterprise Architect 13 concantenates potentially siloed projects or sprints and provides assurance against the risk of segregation and ultimate fracturing of visibility across the enterprise, which can be caused by ad-hoc Agile initiatives.
In Enterprise Architect 13, Kanbans can be set at the individual level or project level in a shared model. With the 'My Kanban' feature, individual work can be tracked while the 'Project Kanban' option supports the team.
Projects of any size can benefit from the efficiencies of the flexible and integrated Kanban facility built into the Enterprise Architect core product. The Kanban features in Enterprise Architect are highly configurable and can be altered to suit any team or process, including agile, iterative and incremental, and even waterfall projects. This simple, yet powerful project management approach, creates a team collaboration platform that will result in products, services and solutions being delivered to customers with efficiency and in record time.
Webinar Recording: Introduction to Kanban and Heatmaps (using EA 12.1)
Workflow model patterns have been added, enabling the creation and linking of single or multiple stage Kanban workflows utilizing the Backlog, Iteration and Complete Kanban diagrams to support the existing “Standard type”. Together, these form powerful Kanban workflows, allowing the easy movement of Kanban elements between them. This movement provides the user with a view of the current team resources allocated to the Kanban element, enabling them to see what resource has been assigned, and completion status.
To assist with control of agile sprints, new menu items are available from the Construct Ribbon to search and find all Kanbans in a model. Kanban drawing style can be used showing Type, Status, Version, Priority, Bold Name, Stereotype, Phase, Author, and Truncate with name and Icon.
Work Items can be drawn with a compelling visual style, such as a colored card that can be dragged anywhere in the diagram to change order in a given lane, or from lane to lane, progressing from left to right through the board, representing progress towards value for the customer. The lanes are typically bound to the values of a 'project management aware' property such as status or phase, and as the item is dragged from lane to lane the value of the bound property is automatically changed. If a diagram is linked to a project management property, dragging an element from one lane to another automatically changes the value of the property, to the value that the lane represents.
To review Kanban features supported by Enterprise Architect 13. please visit:
- Enterprise Architect Version 13 Beta web page: Project Management using Kanban
- Enterprise Architect User Guide: Kanban Facilities
APG ModelFlow™ EA Trial Available for Download
APG ModelFlow EA v1.6.2 is now available for download! Access the trial version right now and immediately evaluate how APG ModelFlow can:
- Effectively exploit enterprise content for architecture-based decision making
- Seamlessly exchange architecture model content among multiple EA toolsets
- Reliably synchronize EA content with federated enterprise data repositories
- Confidently embrace holistic enterprise-wide perspective of business and IT data
The trial download includes two introductory tutorials to walk you through importing Enterprise Architecture content into EA:
- TOGAF®-based tutorial with Capabilities, Business Functions, and Applications
- DoDAF/UPDM™-based tutorial with Capabilities, Performers, Activities, and Systems (exported from IBM® Rational®/Unicom® System Architect®)
- Import element and connector content from any ODBC, SQL, and CSV data source
- Align with existing and custom MDG Technologies and UML Profiles
- Synchronize with existing elements and connectors using any property or tagged value
- Map columns to any EA element or connector property or tagged value
- Map columns to other element types to create related elements and explicit relationships
- Map columns to parent elements to create nested element hierarchies
- Map columns to packages to create nested package hierarchies
- Map columns to create element linked document or set element fill color
- Automatically synchronize with systems of record via command line utility using scheduling agent
- Baseline packages prior to import using EA command line utility
Coming soon: Diagram importing and new XML data source!
"Software is eating the world"
Marc Andreeson, Co-founder of Netscape
In those competitive business scenarios where most of the value is delivered by software, the value chains of established players are disrupted. The impact of this force will grow, with a voracious appetite for competition.
The software driven dynamic has been referred to as “unscaled” by Harvard Business Review and it makes incumbent industry players look listless. Immediate instances are Uber who have left the taxi industry stalled in their wake and agile AirBnB who have stolen a march on the sleeping accommodation sector.
Unscaling is neither upscaling or downscaling, it is small becoming the new big and it occurs when the global audience of the inexpensive Internet becomes exploited and a wide choice of modular services is accessed. It is nimble and quick and it is an innovator nirvana.
The newspaper and magazine industries have recently seen significant disruption as print circulation continues a global freefall, while the number of readers getting their news via smart phone or tablet rises rapidly. According to a report “US Smartphone Use in 2015”, published by the Pew Research Center, 64% of American adults now own a smartphone of some kind, up from 35% in the spring of 2011. A majority of these use their phone to follow along with breaking news, and to share and be informed about happenings in their local community.
This disruption is patently evident in many different industries over recent years. The disruption is not simply the move away from traditional media, but reflects a change in reader empowerment. Ordinary people now have the capability to be journalists and contribute to online conversations. All of this is facilitated by software that simplifies publishing, video production and live updates as global events happen.
Take one of the more recent developments in the manufacturing industry, that of 3D printers which are software controlled. This technology enables the rapid development and revision of products while bypassing costly traditional manufacturing processes.
However as the 3D printing revolution is gathers pace the technology is finding deployments in core manufacturing.
In 2013 a South African aircraft manufacturer Aerosud, an established supplier to major aircraft manufacturers Airbus and Boeing, started building a 3D printer capable of manufacturing aircraft components an order of magnitude faster and close to fifty times larger than any previous printer capable of making metal parts.
The average high end modern car has 100 million lines of code, creating a lower-cost entry point for non-automotive companies with fresh approaches. The trend toward hybrid and electric vehicles such as the Tesla, which is completely computer controlled will only accelerate the software shift. Software runs engines, controls safety features, entertains passengers, guides drivers to destinations and connects each car to mobile, satellite and GPS networks. The automobile is shifting from mechanical to electrical and software controls.
The degree of software control and complexity in cars and is growing and according to the Economist in January 2016, technology firms may be better placed than car makers to develop and profit from the software that will underpin both automated driving and vehicle-sharing.
Some of these firms may even manufacture cars of their own. Local Motors has produced the first of a range of road-ready, 3D printed vehicles. The Low Speed Electric Vehicles (LSEV) will debut in Q1 2016. A highway-ready version will be released in late 2016.
Uber is innovating at the intersection of lifestyle and logistics, connecting riders with safe, reliable, convenient transportation providers at a variety of price-points in cities around the world. The company owns no cars and is disrupting the global taxi industry while focusing on new logistics sectors. Just before the recent consumer electronics show in Las Vegas, GM announced a $500m investment in Lyft, US based nationwide ride-sharing service. Lyft started in 2012 and is currently valued at US$2.5B
According to research from the Global Center for Digital Business Transformation (DBT Center), 47 percent of retail executives believe that disruption could put them out of business. The combination of on-line, in-store, call center and mobile is creating a new retail customer experience called omnichannel that is managed to ensure that it is seamless, integrated and consistent across all channels. The decision as to how service will be delivered is becoming the prerogative of the digitally empowered customer rather than that of the retailer.
Managing the Crisis
While digital disruption of traditional business value chains is a fact, the disruption itself can be seen as a positive, not only because competition sparks innovation, but because it delivers greater value, particularly for the customer and those other actors who drive the success of the business, by consistently realising the resulting digital value.
In a McKinsey article, on the perils of ignoring software development, the article includes a statement that “Despite the mission-critical nature of software, it gets surprisingly little attention in the C-suite.” Further to this they add that as digital technologies continue reshaping markets, the keys to success for a growing number of companies are, embracing the rising strategic importance of software, and viewing software development as a crucial competitive battlefield.
In many instances it is not a single technology, but different technologies that merge which cause digital disruption in the value chain. Once again, change agility needs technology support. These new process demands are growing in many business sectors and because successful transition to the maximum utilisation of strategic information technology is a priority for many organisations, enterprise-class BPM principles are being hard wired into operations. Tools such as Sparx Systems Enterprise Architect and standards including Business Process Modeling are essential.
Approximately 2.3 million lines of code run the International Space Station and it is imperative that it continues to function as expected. The development of software that is mission critical or essential to the survival of business today, necessitates the use of fit for purpose, industrial strength technology.
Sparx Systems Enterprise Architect delivers revolutionary architecture to meet the challenges of the digital revolution, separating exploratory areas of the business, from those that are well established, while supporting collaborative agile development, based on the business direction, strategy and vision. It allows the organisation to revise existing enterprise architecture to support the ongoing process of business transformation.
To accept risk and get comfortable with a pace of change that is very different from the current IT operational models, it is essential to leverage technologies that have been designed to mitigate risk and that are built to support industry best practice and standards for industry.
This agile enterprise architecture platform fosters innovation, by enabling continuous building and refactoring, to facilitate the emerging and vanguard technologies. Simultaneously in a disruptive business environment where continuity is the highest priority, Enterprise Architect supports the consolidation of legacy capabilities.
Sparx Systems Enterprise Architect is the popular, powerful and affordable visual modeling platform, capable of meeting the exacting demands of enterprise IT and Business.
To manage change in a hyper changing world, organisational leaders are now selecting reliable, scalable solutions that have been extensively road tested, by many hundred of thousands of users.
In a period of global industry disruption such as is currently being experienced, it is essential to choose the right, standards based platform with the lowest maintenance overhead, to meet the challenges of predictive change management, collaboration and interoperability.
“It's not the technology that's scary; it's what it does to the relations between people that's scary”
- Robert M. Pirsig, Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance
We are all aware that we are living in a period of unprecedented disruption where everything that we thought as being the status quo, business as usual, is changing rapidly. Technology ‘disrupts existing markets and value networks, displacing established market leaders and alliances’. Popular examples are Uber which is challenging the taxi industry model. Then there is AirBnB challenging the accommodation industry model and 3D printing which is challenging the manufacturing model.
However, in a recent interview Jay Scanlan and Paul Wilmot from McKinsey, posit that unlike a pure play disrupter such as Uber, “our incumbent organizations and our incumbent clients have a broader range of concerns that they need to address. And they have a broader range of customer needs and consumer demands that they want to fulfill.”
Unlike start ups, incumbent organizations hold valuable assets like people, finance and data, etc. Scanlan and Wilmot pose the question as to how incumbents will strategically use these assets to defend themselves against aggressive competition, as digital disrupts their industry.
Agile... The New Norm:
In the face of this change, the adoption of Agile approaches to project management is growing. It is expected that in 2016 the US Federal Government General Services Administration will solicit bids for a number of major agile projects. This follows the piloting of agile projects last year by 18F, an agile development consulting arm, within General Services Administration.
A recent survey of development and IT professionals, shows that Agile is now the norm. The majority of development teams and projects now embrace the methodology, while pure waterfall approaches are in the minority. The study conducted by HP in 2014 consisted of an online survey of 601 software developers and IT professionals representing over 600 organisations, where 400 + described themselves as “pure agile”.
According to Gartner “Digital business will require application leaders to explore development outside of traditional IT and to ensure fast-paced incremental releases in order to be competitive.” Just as digital transformation is changing role of application leaders such as the CIO, so too it is impacting the role of the Business Analyst (BA) in the private and public sectors.
The Agile Business Analyst:
The BA has traditionally embraced the rapids of change much like a canoeist. Using the IIBA Body of Knowledge (BABOK) as both their map and compass, they engage the volatility and uncertainty of change. With an innate capability they navigate successful transits, piloting by their experience and understanding of the different currents and hazards.
Agile presents great opportunity for the BA. In the process of connecting people and engendering understanding, improving product quality and increasing customer satisfaction, they have the potential to play many roles, to become the consultant.
A key finding of the HP survey was that the majority of participants agreed that “the primary motivators for Agile adoption are associated with improving team collaboration and increasing software quality and customer satisfaction.”
Becoming increasingly involved in Agile projects and addressing the growth in the variety of concerns of the stakeholder (the Customer) will require that the BA leverage the use of Agile tools. This technology will enable the BA to help their clients find ways to make Agile work for them.
BABOK 3.0 Reference Model - an Agile Approach:
This Reference Model provides case studies covering every knowledge area, task and technique in the BABOK Guide. Each case study contains hundreds of examples utilizing diagrams, matrices, charts, documents, and a plethora of tools. This functionality with many others is combined with the power of Enterprise Architect.
The Reference Model links the BABOK 3.0 to a rich and complete User Guide that provides help and guidance with every aspect of using Enterprise Architect. Sparx Systems Enterprise Architect is the control center supporting real time collaborative Enterprise Architecture planning, building, testing, deployment and communication across all domains and stakeholders.
Enterprise Agile Adoption:
As the constraints of the traditional enterprise architecture approach are replaced by the force of digital convergence and transformation, executives seek agile enterprise architecture approaches and technologies that are fit for purpose. The tools deployed to manage that architecture are critical to the success of digital transformation.
Detailed descriptions in the Reference Model will teach the Business Analysts how to use the tool to complete tasks and perform techniques including process modeling and requirements management. Videos, slideshows and white papers add to the rich set of guidance that will help BA's become an Agile Business Analyst assisting organizations to become more purposeful in how they choose to adopt Agile.
Seeking customer feedback and quickly improving the product, fuels the success of many disruptive technologies. This is the approach of Sparx Systems to the ongoing development of Enterprise Architect. As Sparx Systems CEO, Geoff Sparks notes, “Agile development provides a shared and flexible team experience through complete transparency, iterative development and constant feedback - it has been the essential design goal of Enterprise Architect for over a decade and it will remain just as valid today.”
- Product Feature Page: Tools & Techniques for BABOK Guide v3
- Company Announcement: IIBA Announces Strategic Partnership with Sparx Systems
- Enterprise Architect User Guide: Business Analysis Body of Knowledge (BABOK)
Sparx Systems has been regarded highly in a recent publication of CIO Review magazine, identifying the company as a benchmark vendor within the Enterprise Architecture space.
Following on from CIOReview's inclusion of Sparx Systems within the 2015 BPM Top 20 list, the review process is conducted with the support of industry experts, identifying vendors who "... have exhibited vast knowledge and in-depth expertise in delivering EA related solutions."
An active and informative Sparx Community is one of the driving forces that support Sparx Systems in being recognized in this space; a highly collaborative Community membership who share their experiences underpins the global appeal of Enterprise Architect.
CIO Review's 20 Most Promising Enterprise Architecture Technology Providers of