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London User Group; Call for Speakers
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SysML 1.4 reference card
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Enterprise Architect User Group: London 2017
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We are Profiling EA Users
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Enterprise Architect User Group
London 2017; 18th - 19th May
2017 meeting of the Enterprise Architect User Group sees a shakeup to the agenda in the form of an additional day being added to the roster. In additional to the traditional presentation day of User Stories, How to's etc the extra day added to the event is taking the form of a training day.
The training day adds to the event a selection of six, three hour training sessions on a variety of subjects from BPMN to TOGAF and Model Curation.
Code Node, 10 South Place, London, EC2M 7BT
Agenda; Thursday 18th May
You can find information on these training sessions over at the EA User Group website.
Agenda; Friday 19th May
You can find a synopsis for each of these presentations over on the EA User Group website.
How to buy your tickets...
Tickets for the event are available directly from the EA User Group website and are priced as follows:
- Full two day event ticket; £550.00 +Vat
- Friday only ticket; £75.00 +Vat
by Phil Chudley, Principal Consultant at Dunstan Thomas Consulting
The Open Group released the official specification of ArchiMate 3.0 in June 2016, and this new specification is supported in Enterprise Architect version 13. This article summarises the new features and changes within ArchiMate 3.0 and provides an example of how to migrate an existing ArchiMate 2.0 model to ArchiMate 3.0 model using Enterprise Architect v.13.
Summary of Changes
The following is a summary of the changes made within ArchiMate 3.0:
- Motivation Extension;
- New element for modelling Outcomes.
- New set of Strategy Elements, Resource, Capability, Course of Action.
- Business Layer;
- Representation of the Contract element modified so as to be different from the Business Object Element.
- Location element removed (although Enterprise Architect has re-located this element to the Technology Layer – Physical Extension).
- Application Layer;
- Two new elements added, Application Process and Application Event
- Technology layer;
- Elements called Infrastructure in ArchiMate 2.0 are now called Technology in ArchiMate 3.0.
- Four new elements added, Technology Process, Technology Interaction, Technology Event and Technology Collaboration.
- New set of Physical Elements, Equipment, Facility, Distribution Network and Material. These elements are known as the Physical Extension.
- Implementation and Migration Extension;
- One new element added, Implementation Event.
- Representation of Assignment modified to have a directional arrow.
- Bi-directional Access relationship added.
- Plus (positive) and Minus (negative) symbols added to Influence Relationship.
- New relationship, Serving.
Detail of Changes
The following tables provided an example of the changes for each of the sections listed in the Summary of Changes above.
|Outcome||An end result that has been achieved.|
|Resource||An asset owned or controlled by an individual or organisation.|
|Capability||An ability that an active structure element, such as an organisation, person, or system possesses.|
|Course of Action||An approach or plan for configuring some capabilities and resources of the enterprise, undertaken to achieve a goal.|
|Contract||A formal or informal specification of an agreement between a provided and consumer that specifies the rights and obligations associated with a product.|
|Application Process||A sequence of application behaviours that achieves a specific outcome.|
|Application Event||An application behaviour element that denotes a state change.|
|Technology Collaboration||An aggregate of two or more nodes that work together to perform collective technology behaviour.|
|Technology Process||A sequence of technology behaviours that achieves a specific outcome.|
|Technology Event||A technology behaviour element that denotes a state of change.|
|Technology Interaction||A unit of collective technology behaviour performed by (a collaboration of) two or more nodes.|
|Equipment||One or more physical machines, tools, or instruments that can create, use, store, move, or transform materials.|
|Facility||A physical structure or environment.|
|Distribution Network||A physical network used to transport materials or energy.|
|Material||Tangible physical matter or physical elements.|
Implementation & Migration Extension
|Implementation Event||A behaviour element that denotes a change of state related to an implementation or migration.|
|Assignment||Expresses the allocation of responsibility, performance of behaviour, or execution.|
|Serving||Models that an element provides its functionality to another element.|
|Access||Models the ability of behaviour and active structure elements to observe or act upon passive structure elements.|
|Influence||Models that an element affects the implementation or achievement of some motivation element.|
Implications to existing ArchiMate models
If an organisation has modelled their Enterprise Architecture using Enterprise Architect and ArchiMate 2, and are now using Version 13 of Enterprise Architect, they have two courses of action:
- Continue to model using ArchiMate 2.0. In this case no action is required either for Enterprise Architect or the model repository. An organisation would continue to model using ArchiMate 2.0 if they do not wish to make use of any of the new features in ArchiMate 3.0.
- Migrate their existing ArchiMate 2.0 model to ArchiMate 3.0, and then continue to model using ArchiMate 3.0. An organisation would continue to model using ArchiMate 2.0 if they wish to make use of any of the new features in ArchiMate 3.0.
My own personal opinion is that an organisation should consider moving to Enterprise Architect version 13 (mainly due its new feature of “Time Aware Modelling”) and ArchiMate 3.0. One of the main reasons, is due to inherent ambiguity (due to the lack of direction indication) in the assigns relationship in ArchiMate 2.0, which has been eliminated in ArchiMate 3.0 by making the assigns relationship directional.
Migrating an ArchiMate 2.0 model to ArchiMate 3.0
Enterprise Architect version 13 provides a migration script for this purpose. The following steps are used to perform the migration:
- Take a backup copy of the existing model repository.
- Using the Configure | Manage Technology ribbon, ensure that both ArchiMate 2.0 and ArchiMate 3.0 MDG technologies are enabled.
- Using the Code | Scripting ribbon, make the scripting window visible:
- Select the topmost package (or view) that contains the model to migrate:
- Select the script Migrate ArchiMate 2 to ArchiMate 3 in the scripting window.
- Right-click and select Run Script from the menu.
- The progress of the migration, together with any errors / warnings will be displayed in the system output window.
- Review the diagrams (you may have to tidy some of the relationships).
- Turn off the MDG ArchiMate 2.0 using the Configure | Manage Technology ribbon.
NOTE: It appears that composition relationships are NOT HIDDEN, when using nested structures in ArchiMate 3.0. I suspect this is an Enterprise Architect version 13 issue. This is likely to be fixed and should not deter migration, as these relationships can always be hidden using the Visible Relations function in Enterprise Architect. (Layout | Manage ribbon and select Show and Hide Relationships… from the menu).
Dunstan Thomas Consulting
You'll find lots of useful Enterprise Architect videos on our YouTube Channel.
Straight out of the box, Sparx Enterpise Architect provides support for multiple modeling notations. Using a synergy of notations can result in a better description of business architecture. This article considers how ArchiMate, BPMN and UML can be combined into a model that is focused at a high-level of abstraction, whilst still allowing for some critical details to be explored.
Revealing layers of abstraction
As explained in Marc Lankhorst's book Enterprise Architecture at Work (third edition, p. 117), modeling notations provide a way to represent knowledge. The process of building, sharing and transforming the model can foster a new level of understanding amongst the participants. This refined knowledge is (at least) as valuable as the resulting model artifacts (the representation). Effective communication of that knowledge requires consideration for the target audience and an appropriate level of detail.
ArchiMate is good for:
- People who have a job title like Enterprise Architect or Business Architect.
- Presenting high-level and layered abstractions of the business itself, along with the software and technology that are used to support it.
- Tracing and illustrating how the motivating strategy is realised by the business.
- Planning the evolution and transformation of a business.
- Supporting concepts that are similar to those found within TOGAF.
By design, the ArchiMate 2.1 specification does not (explicitly) provide for detailed:
- Business process modeling
- Data modeling
- BPMN (Business Process Modeling and Notation) is focused on the detailed modeling of business processes; naturally enough, BPMN is increasingly used amongst the Business Analyst community.
- UML Class diagrams may be used to detail data types, along with the relationships between data types; they are widely recognized amongst software developers, and a good alternative to using entity relationship diagrams for logical data modeling.
Coordinating multiple notations in a single model repository
UML is the native metamodel and notation of Sparx Enterprise Architect. Each additional notation (such as ArchiMate and BPMN) is provided as a MDG (Model-Driven Generator) technology within the tool. The UML specification provides for semantic extension of the UML through the mechanism of Profiles, Stereotypes and Tagged Values. Profiles are the heart of each MDG Technology, enhanced with Sparx tool specific details supporting new types of diagram notations and diagram toolboxes.
Using multiple notations within a single repository requires a disciplined approach in order maintain clarity. In brief, the best practice is to:
- Restrict the elements of each notation to a separate root node.
- Use the UML «Trace» dependency to provide an elegant way of relating elements belonging to different notations.
Add root node to your Sparx Enterprise Architect repository
You might not have realised that the File|New Project… menu option is something of a misnomer. Both EAP and FEAP files are actually self-contained model repositories, and can therefore contain multiple root nodes (just like a RDBMS hosted shared repository, whether accessed through an ODBC or Cloud connection). As a reminder, you can add a new root node into a repository by performing the following steps:
- If necessary, click View|Project Browser to open the Project Browser window.
- Right-click inside the blank (white) area of the Project Browser window and then click Add|Add Root Node….
- The Create New Model (root node) window is displayed. Type MyCorporation (ArchiMate) into the Model Name field.
- In a similar way, create root nodes for:
- MyCorporation (BPMN)
- MyCorporation (UML)
Create a «Trace» dependency between elements belonging to different notations
As stated in the Unified Modeling Language 2.5 specification (p246):
"Models can have Abstraction Dependencies between them: refinement (stereotyped by «Refine» from the Standard Profile) or mapping (for example stereotyped by «Trace» from the Standard Profile). These are typically represented in more detail by Dependencies between the elements contained in the Models. Relationships between elements in different Models generally have no direct impact on the contents of the Models because each Model is meant to be complete. However, they are useful for tracing refinements and for keeping track of cross-references between models."
ArchiMate for an architectural understanding
For example, an ArchiMate Business Process Viewpoint diagram for Purchase Item might look as follows:
This provides a high-level overview of a core business process, with enough detail to inform stakeholders and decision making at a whole-enterprise level of abstraction.
BPMN for detailing business processes
BPMN can be used to detail the ArchiMate Business Process concept, as follows:
UML for detailing the data entites
UML Classes can be used to detail the ArchiMate Business Object concept, as follows:
Usually, diagrams should only contain a single notation. In the examples above, multiple notations are deliberately used to visualise «Trace» dependencies between the ArchiMate, BPMN and UML elements.
How-to add «Trace» dependencies between elements model elements
Best practice for adding «Trace» dependencies using a diagram is to:
- Temporarily add the required elements of the foreign notation to a diagram.
- Draw the «Trace» depencies between elements.
- Remove the foreign notation elements from the diagrams, whilst retaining the traceablity links within the model repository. (So, delete the foreign elements from the diagram, but NOT the repository).
Alternatively, you could use the Relationship Matrix functionality of Sparx Enterprise Architect (click Tools|Relationship Matrix to get started).
The UML specified «Trace» dependency (relationship) is an elegant way of tracing between different modeling notations. Sparx Enterprise Architect provides a wide coverage of modeling notations, by leveraging the UML Profiles mechanism, and enhancing it with MDG technologies. In practice, this enables a synergy of the ArchiMate, BPMN and UML notations. Models can be constructed as layered abstractions, moving from one notation to another to suit the level of detail required by the user and intended audience.
When to consider the use of ArchiMate?
The Open Group recently released the ArchiMate 2.1 specification; I think that there are five principle reasons to consider using the notation to describe the architecture of your enterprise. By design, ArchiMate is focused toward:
- Providing a high-level of abstraction
- Facilitating the construction of a layered enterprise architecture
- Illustrating how business concepts are supported by IT systems, comprising both hardware and software
- Tracing stakeholder concerns through to their realization by the enterprise architecture
- Showing the possible, and actual, evolution of an enterprise architecture through a number of recognizable intermediate states.
How does ArchiMate handle these things?
- Identify the specific types of things that are pertinent
- Identify the relationships between the types of things
- Provide a graphical notation to illustrate the above
Types of concept
ArchiMate divides the specific types of things to be modeled into three core layers:
- Business concepts (including actor, role, function, process, service and interface)
Figure 1: A subset of the business layer concepts
- Application concepts (including component, function, service and interface)
Figure 2: A subset of application layer concepts
- Technology concepts (including device, system software, function and interface)
Figure 3: A subset of the technology layer concepts
ArchiMate supplements the core types of things with two extensions for:
- Motivation (including driver, goal, requirement, principle and constraint)
- Implementation and migration (work package, deliverable, plateau and gap)
Relationships between concepts
ArchiMate specifies ten types of relationship that may be used between elements:
- Used by
ArchiMate specifies the set of valid relationships that may exist between concepts. Relationships are restricted for both concepts belonging within a single core layer or extension, and also across layers. The detailed specification of all valid relationships between types is tabulated in Appendix B: Relationship Tables of the ArchiMate 2.1 specification (ISBN 978-94-018-0003-7).
Figure 4: A syntactically (but not necessarily semantically) correct example showing all the available ArchiMate relationships
ArchiMate also specifies rules for abstracting over a chain of relationships between three or more concepts:
Transitively applying this property allows us to replace a “chain” of structural relationships (with intermediate model elements) by the weakest structural relationship in the chain. – p. 94, ArchiMate 2.1 specification
Figure 5: A chain of relationships, along with the derived relationship
How using an ArchiMate modeling tool can help
In theory, it is not necessary to use a dedicated modeling tool in order to draw ArchiMate diagrams. You could create a custom stencil with Microsoft Visio (for example) containing all the basic shapes of the elements and relationships. However, a good modeling tool can be used to positively enhance both:
- Productivity in creating models
- The correctness of the models
Both enhancements depend on automated model validation, at either the syntactic or semantic level.
Checking for errors in direct relationships [enhance correctness]
Ideally, your modeling tool should not allow you to draw an invalid relationship between two concepts in the first place. This can be prevented a priori whilst creating the initial drawing, by greying out or eliding the options to create invalid relationships. Alternatively (or additionally), the modeling tool can validate the relationships between elements within each diagram, highlighting where invalid relationships have been made, and suggesting valid alternatives.
Automatically deriving relationships between elements [enhance productivity]
Due to ArchiMate’s rules for abstracting over a chain of relationships, your modeling tool should be able to insert a correctly derived relationship between any two elements in a diagram, or at least inform you that no relationship can be derived at all.
Automating ArchiMate viewpoints
ArchiMate specifies twenty-six viewpoints that may be constructed using different combinations of element types and relationships. Ideally, your tool should be able to:
- Validate any viewpoint(s) that you have already created. [enhance correctness]
- Provide automated assistance with creating new diagrams through re-using existing model elements and their relationships. [enhance productivity]
How to do it? Let us help you!
New courses released onto the DT schedule & virtual learning environment!
With no small amount of effort we have managed to bring forward the release of the phase 2 online training courses available via the Dunstan Thomas virtual learning environment.
The list of options now available is;
- An Introduction to UML
- Reporting with Enterprise Architect
- SysML 1.3 Made Practical with Enterprise Architect
- Putting TOGAF into Practice with Enterprise Architect
- Business Process Modelling using BPMN and Enterprise Architect
- Enterprise Architect; The Practicalities
- An Introduction to ArchiMate
- Enterprise Architecture Modelling using Enterprise Architect and ArchiMate 2.0
- UML with Enterprise Architect for Beginners
- UML with Enterprise Architect for Business Analysts
- UML with Enterprise Architect for UML Practitioners
You can find all these sessions in the training directory on our website;
Visit our online training page & use the subscription calculator to get a quote for your online training needs.
New to our classroom offering...
This two day training course for Sparx Systems UML modelling tool, Enterprise Architect. It is designed to provide Business Analysts and Solution Architects with the necessary practical skills to create, using Enterprise Architect, design solution models for applications that will be running on mobile devices.
For any information on these or any of our other courses or services please do not hesitate to contact us.
This new training course teaches ArchiMate business, application and technology layers as well as motivation and implementation & migration extensions (providing full support for TOGAF).
ArchiMate is an industry standard notation developed by The Open Group for the graphical modeling of enterprise architectures. The notation has evolved to be fully aligned with TOGAF. Many companies recognise the value of these architectural models in understanding the dependencies between their people, processes, applications, data and hardware. Using ArchiMate allows them to integrate their business and IT strategies.
Gillian Adens, Director of Hippo Software, demonstrates how Enterprise Architect can be used to create ArchiMate models and viewpoints to help in understanding, documenting and communicating knowledge of the enterprise architecture. The webinar:
- Explains the purpose of ArchiMate and how it supports TOGAF
- Shows how to model business organisation, processes and products using ArchiMate business layer viewpoints
- Illustrates an application landscape and explores dependencies using ArchiMate application layer viewpoints
- Shows how to catalogue company infrastructure (hardware, system software and networks) using ArchiMate technology layer viewpoints
- Demonstrates how to identify stakeholders, drivers, goals and requirements using the ArchiMate motivation extension
View the webinar and corresponding online resources at:
ArchiMate is an industry standard notation developed by The Open Group for the graphical modelling of enterprise architectures. The notation has evolved to be fully aligned with TOGAF. Many companies recognise the value of these architectural models to understand the dependencies between their people, processes, applications, data and hardware. Using ArchiMate allows them to integrate their business and IT strategies.
This webinar will demonstrate how Enterprise Architect can be used to create ArchiMate models and viewpoints to understand, document and communicate knowledge of the enterprise architecture. The webinar will:
- Explain the purpose of ArchiMate and how it supports TOGAF
- Show how to model business organisation, processes and products using ArchiMate business layer viewpoints
- Illustrate an application landscape and explore dependencies using ArchiMate application layer viewpoints
- Show how to catalogue company infrastructure (hardware, system software and networks) using ArchiMate technology layer viewpoints
- Demonstrate how to identify stakeholders, drivers, goals and requirements using the ArchiMate motivation extension
To learn more about using ArchiMate within Enterprise Architect, please register for this webinar today.
Guest Presenter: Gillian Adens, Director of Hippo Software.
Learn how to use ArchiMate and Enterprise Architect to model your enterprise architecture. Understand the complex inter-dependencies between people, processes, applications, data and hardware. Use ArchiMate to align your business and IT strategies. Register now to attend on 18th or 19th June 2014.
This new training course teaches delegates how to create ArchiMate business and motivation viewpoints in Enterprise Architect. Learn to model business organisation, processes and products and identify stakeholders, drivers, goals and requirements.